Stress Model Mechanics (Paradigm Shift in Medical Expectations and Modeling)

COMPLEXITY, SYSTEMS AND NONLINEARITY
Systems Modeling Autism

  1. Thresholds: Instead of Linear Single cause-effect rules of Koch’s Postulates and Disease Model of Medicine. Nonlinear impacts rely on thresholds from multiple inputs instead of linear models that look to average the impact as “the dose makes the poison”. Nonlinear models consider the context as what sets the poison: ie, what factors make the toxic exposure more or less stressful.
  2. Complexity:  Generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts. 
    1. Equifinality: alternative ways of attaining the same objectives (convergence)
    2. Multifinality: attaining alternative objectives from the same inputs (divergence)
    3. Emergence: Carl Popper, the great philosopher said, “All problems are either clouds or clocks.”  A clock is a… to understand a clock, you can take it apart, it’s individual pieces and you study the pieces and then you can understand how a clock works.  A cloud, you can’t take apart a cloud. A cloud is a dynamic system. A cloud you can only study as a whole.
  3. Homeostasis: The tendency of a system to resist change and maintain status quo.
  4. Allostasis: process by which the body responds to stressors in order to regain homeostasis 
  5. Hormesis: Biphasic dose-response to an environmental agent characterized by a low dose stimulation or beneficial effect and a high dose inhibitory or toxic effect. 
    1. Point of Diminishing Returns
  6. Priming: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5146200/
  7. Adaptation: The tendency of a system to make the changes needed to protect itself and grow to accomplish its goal.
  8. Reciprocal Transactions: Circular interactions that systems engage in such that they influence one another.
  9. Feedback Loop: The process by which systems self-correct based on reactions from other systems in the environment.
  10. Nonlinearity:  Complex systems often have nonlinear behavior, meaning they may respond in different ways to the same input depending on their state or context.
    1. Nonlinear Causality: Nonlinear causality is a form of causation where cause and effect can flow in a bidirectional fashion between two or more elements or systems. 
  11. Synergism : Synergy of various kinds has been advanced by Peter Corning as a causal agency that can explain the progressive evolution of complexity in living systems over the course of time. 
  12. Trade-offs: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0947358016300309
  13. Chaos Dynamics: “initial conditions”, variable influences and variable but predictable outcomes. Chaos dynamics are like weather patterns in particular climates.
    1. Opposite/Opposing effects of same substance depending on genetics, neurobiological starting points, multi-hits, epigenetic shifts, age (timing), gender, and resource availability.
    2. Sexual Dimorphic Impacts
  14. Systems Models: An organized entity made up of interrelated and interdependent parts
    1. Systems Thinking: A Stress Model will include timing, context, integration of interactive systems, feedback and hormesis
    2. Systems Theory: A Stress Model looks at how the system responds to stress to create the outcome. There are no single causes because it is the systems reaction that is always the true cause, but it’s the environment that creates the reaction. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_theory
      1. System: An organized entity made up of interrelated and interdependent parts.
      2. Boundaries: Barriers that define a system and distinguish it from other systems in the environment.
      3. Homeostasis: The tendency of a system to be resilient towards external factors and maintain its key characteristics.
      4. Adaptation: The tendency of a self-adapting system to make the internal changes needed to protect itself and keep fulfilling its purpose.
      5. Reciprocal Transactions: Circular or cyclical interactions that systems engage in such that they influence one another.
      6. Feedback Loop: The process by which systems self-correct based on reactions from other systems in the environment.
      7. Throughput: Rate of energy transfer between the system and its environment during the time it is functioning.
      8. Microsystem: The system closest to the client.
      9. Mesosystem: Relationships among the systems in an environment.
      10. Exosystem: A relationship between two systems that has an indirect effect on a third system.
      11. Macrosystem: A larger system that influences clients, such as policies, administration of entitlement programs, and culture.
      12. Chronosystem: A system composed of significant life events that can affect adaptation.

  1. Expensive Tissue Hypothesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expensive_tissue_hypothesis
  2. Cognitive Demands and Constraints as Stress Parameters

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